Using our up to date specialist machinery for producing components in ferrous and non ferrous metals, thermo-plastics, industrial laminates and composites and with our experience in these materials over the years, we can offer advice to your design engineers on the most appropriate material for a given requirement. From a small batch quantities to mass produced components our service is second to none.

The engineering industry is heavily dependent on steel, and it’s used in a huge range of markets from rail, oil and gas, petrochemical, automotive and machinery building. Steel is an alloy of iron that contains a small amount of carbon, much less than cast iron and usually less than 1.7%. In general the tightly controlled carbon content determines how easily the steel can be hardened by heat treatments. Other alloying elements such as nickel or chromium can also be added to steel to create a wide variety of desirable characteristics. Steel is usually separated into at least three groups. The most common groupings are: mild steels, carbon steels and alloy steels, each group having different overall attributes.

The mild steels are low in carbon content and are best suited to applications where heavy loads or stresses are not involved. These alloys are most suited to use in the manufacture of products where their easy workability and weldability make them ideal for a range of fabricated products. Carbon steels are generally stronger than mild steels. Their ability to accept hardening treatments is their greatest attribute. Alloy steels complete the range, with specific alloying elements added to make them suitable for a variety of high-strength and other applications. There are literally hundreds of specifications relating to steels. British, German and American specifications are commonly found in the UK, however, European harmonisation has added more. 

BS 970 was revised in 1970 and the EN designation was replaced by a six digit system. In this system the first three digits refer to the alloy type, the fourth digit (letter) indicates if the steel is supplied to Analysis, Mechanical property or Hardenability requirements and the fifth and sixth digits represent a value that is 100 times the (mean) carbon content.

EN1A Engineering Steel is ideal for use in precision turned components and is used in intricate drilling and machining operations. The alloy can be case hardened which improves wear resistance and has reasonable strength and ductility. EN1A also offers a superior finish.
EN3B Engineering Steel is suitable for low stress engineering applications and can be case hardened. Offering good machining and welding characteristics, EN3B is intended for general engineering use. Typical Applications are; shafts & rollers, machinery parts, threaded bars and spindles & axles.
EN8 Engineering Steel is an unalloyed carbon steel with reasonable tensile strength. It can be flame or induction hardened and is a readily machinable material. When heat treated, EN8 offers moderate wear resistance. EN8 is a popular steel in industry.
EN16 is a high tensile steel which has excellent ductility and good shock resistance. EN16 shares the same good mechanical properties of EN8 but is more resistant to shear loading and frictional wearing. It is an alternative alloy steel grade to other chromium and nickel high tensile steel specifications and is readily machinable.EN16 is a popular 'all-rounder' and is used in a wide variety of general engineering applications. Typical applications include; connecting rods, pistons and high tensile shafts.
EN19 Engineering Steel is a high tensile steel with good ductility and shock resistance. The alloy offers good wear resistance and can be case hardened.EN19 is suitable for applications with very high loading and in recent years EN19 has become an established material in the Oil & Gas sector. The material lends itself well to any application where strength is a primary consideration.
EN24 is a very high strength steel alloy which is used hardened and tempered. The grade is a nickel chromium molybdenum combination - this offers high tensile steel strength, with good ductility and wear resistance characteristics. With relatively good impact properties at low temperatures, EN24 is also suitable for a variety of elevated temperature applications. Typical applications are; high strength shafts, punches & dies, drill bushings, retaining rings.
EN32 Engineering Steel is readily machinable and weldable and offers low tensile strength. It is classed as a case hardening steel and is recommended for use in the production of lightly stressed components. Typical applications include; spindles, bushes, rollers, cams.
EN36 Engineering Steel offers high tensile strength and deep hardening due to the alloys nickel and chrome content. With excellent toughness and fatigue resistance, this carburising steel grade offers a very high surface strength with a soft but strong core. EN36 is used in the production of numerous high strength parts including crankshafts in the automotive and aerospace sector.
EN40B Engineering Steel offers high wear resistance. The alloy also offers good shock resistance and good toughness and ductility. It is classed as a nitriding steel. Typical applications are drills, guides and shafts,
EN41 is a chromium aluminium molybdenum nitriding steel. The material offers high wear resistance together with toughness and ductility. EN41 is defined by its suitability for nitriding which gives the material a hard, wear resistant case. EN41 is harder wearing than EN40B and offers excellent abrasion resistance. Typical applications are; valve stems, shackle pins, and connecting rods.

Stainless steels most notable feature is its ability to resist corrosive attack, it is a basic alloy of steel that contains a minimum of 11% of chromium. Stainless steel is used in a wide range of applications, including the oil & gas industry for pressure vessels and in clinical environments such as hospitals, laboratories and food preparation areas.

There are four main alloy groups, known as “Austenitic”, “Ferritic”, “Martensitic” and “Duplex/Super Duplex”.

Ferritic stainless steels contain a minimum of 11% chromium and no nickel. They are magnetic.

Austenitic stainless steels contain a minimum of 18% chromium, along with a minimum of 8% nickel. They are non-magnetic. They are tougher, maintaining their strength better at high temperatures. Weldability is improved as is corrosion resistance and with the addition of less than 2% molybdenum.

Martensitic stainless steels contain a minimum of 11.5% chromium, generally with no nickel content but an addition of 0.15% – 0.4% carbon. These steels give very high strength in the hardened condition, and the abrasion and wear resistance of these alloys is well known. Duplex & Super

Duplex Stainless Steels are formed from an approximately 50/50 mixture of austenitic and ferritic and are sometimes referred to as austenitic-ferritic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels combine the best attributes of both austenitic and ferritic stainless steels and provide high strength with good corrosion resistance, this gives them a significant advantage over 300 and 400 series stainless steels.

Type 301 is an austenitic stainless steel alloy which offers high strength and good corrosion resistance in mildly corrosive environments at ambient temperature. Type 301 is suitable for all forms of welding. High strength combined with excellent corrosion resistance makes 301 stainless suitable for a wide range of applications in sectors such as aerospace, rail and automotive.
Type 302 stainless steel is a tough chromium-nickel austenitic alloy with superior corrosion resistance to Type 301 and slightly higher carbon content than Type304. The material is non-magnetic and not affected by additional heat treatment. It is an extremely tough grade and is used in applications the food and beverage industry among others.
Type 303 stainless steel is an austenitic steel grade with very good machinability. The material is not recommended for applications where welding is required.
Type 304 stainless steel is an austenitic stainless steel alloy which contains 18% chrome and 8% nickel. Offering excellent welding properties, the alloy is also reasonably machinable.
Type 316 is an austenitic stainless steel with added molybdenum which gives the alloy improved corrosion resistance. It is commercially almost as popular as 304. The mechanical properties of the alloy are similar to Type 304 except that this grade is stronger at elevated temperatures. 
Weldability of 316 alloys is excellent and machinability is good. Typical applications are; pressure vessels, food preparation equipment and valves & pumps.
Type 321 stainless steel is a variation of grade 304 with the addition of titanium as a stabiliser. The alloy is resistant to intergranular corrosion and can be easily welded. Type 321 offers excellent resistance to oxidation and chemical Type 321 is used in a wide range of applications including oil & gas, petrochemical, aerospace and general industry.
Type 347 stainless steel is a multi-purpose austenitic stainless steel - the alloy offers excellent heat and corrosion resistance. The material has better mechanical properties than 304, which makes the alloy more suitable for high temperature service. The alloy is used in the oil, gas and chemical sector as well as the nuclear industry.
Type 416 stainless steel has the best machining capabilities of any stainless steel, thanks to the introduction of sulphur as a core element. However, such performance is negated in terms of reduced corrosion resistance and weldability.
Type 431 is a hardenable martensitic stainless steel alloy which has a combination of high tensile and torsional strength - this makes it well suited to shaft manufacture. The alloy is intended for use in applications requiring good strength and toughness combined with reasonable corrosion resistance. As the alloy offers considerable resistance to saltwater corrosion, it is used widely in marine equipment and systems. Type 431 is easily machined but welding is difficult.
17-4 PH is a martensitic stainless steel with excellent strength and hardness, it has very high corrosion resistance. It is readily machinable and weldable and has outstanding wear resistance and good dimensional stability. It is widely used in the oil and gas sector, petrochemical, paper and food industries.
A high grade machinable Type 316L Stainless Steel, the alloy combines moderate mechanical strength with good resistance to corrosion in a wide range of media. Typical applications are; components/equipment in oil and gas, chemical/petrochemical plant equipment and pump and valve components.
This highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel offers a combination of good mechanical strength (approaching twice that of Type 316 stainless steel) and high corrosion resistance. 

The mechanical properties at both elevated and sub-zero temperatures are very good and, unlike many austenitic stainless steels, the alloy does not become magnetic at sub-zero temperatures. A typical application would be components in nuclear installations.

In its pure form, the metal possesses a high level of corrosion resistance but is low in strength. When alloyed aluminium becomes versatile and is a widely used material. The alloys used are dependent on the finished material required. Additions of copper, iron, zinc, nickel, tin, lead, magnesium and silicon are all used to improve its attributes. Increased strength, corrosion resistance, ductility, workability, weldability and machinability are all possible.

The “commercially pure” product (99.00% pure) is often used as bus-bars for electrical purposes as its conductivity in this pure state is high.

There are two main types of alloyed aluminium; wrought and cast. Wrought alloys are divided into two groups: heat-treatable and non-heat treatable. Heat-treatable alloys are strong and durable, non-heat treatable alloys have ductility, weldability and corrosion resistance.

1000 Series Pure aluminium (99% aluminium content) with high corrosion resistance, high thermal and electrical conductivity. These aluminium alloys are useful in fabrication due to the materials corrosion resistance. The alloy is useful in applications such as pressurised vessels, chemical tanks, electrical and chemical applications. Other characteristics of the series include excellent workability and low mechanical properties.
2000 Series Copper is the primary alloying element and this series are well known for their high performance and excellent strength over a broad range of temperatures. For optimum performance, solutions heat treatment is required and then this series offers similar mechanical properties to mild steel.
3000 Series Manganese is the primary alloying element and this series offer good corrosion resistance and moderate strength.
5000 Series Magnesium is the primary alloying element and this series possess good corrosion resistance in marine atmospheres and good welding characteristics. It is the highest strength non-treatable Aluminium Alloy. Used in a variety of applications including pressurised vessels, buildings, transport and automotive.
6000 Series Contains added manganese and silicon - the combination of elements allows the alloy to be solution heat treated which improves the alloys strength. This Series is used extensively in welding fabrication as the range is one of the most versatile heat-treatable aluminium’s and offers good corrosion resistance and formability with medium strength.
7000 Series 7000 series utilises zinc as the major alloying element and when combined with a smaller amount of magnesium, the result is a heat-treatable alloy which offers very high strength. Applications for this range include critical high stressed parts used in the aerospace sector, automotive sector and in sports equipment.
Aluminium tooling plate is a term used to describe a range of proprietary aluminium plate alloys that have been developed to offer improved performance over basic 5000, 6000 & 7000 grades. Dimensional stability and precision are key attributes that give these alloys the advantage over standard aluminium plate alloys. Aluminium Tooling Plate Range:
ALPLAN ® An ultra-high precision wrought aluminium speciality plate designed to meet the most stringent requirements for size and shape stability under the most extreme machining whilst minimising through cost
CERTAL ® An aluminium tooling plate product which offers a combination of excellent machinability, shape stability and high strength
CONTAL ® A high strength alloy plate product which has very high zinc, magnesium and copper content
UNIDAL ® A high strength precision plate product which offers a unique combination of high mechanical strength with outstanding dimensional stability
KASTAL ® A high precision cast aluminium speciality plate designed to meet stringent requirements for size and shape stability
ACP 5080R ® An outstanding material which benefits from added qualities whilst offering costs savings

Beryllium copper which is also known as beryllium bronze and spring copper, offers the highest strength of any copper. Applications for beryllium copper usually divide between those requiring high strength and those requiring high conductivity treatment of the finished component. Beryllium copper is also non-magnetic and non-sparking, a characteristic that makes it particularly suitable for use in explosive atmospheres.

High Conductivity Copper Beryllium Alloy Alloy 3 is a high conductivity copper beryllium alloy used in applications requiring a combination of high thermal conductivity with moderate strength. It is nonmagnetic and provides excellent resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloy 3’s corrosion resistance is similar to pure copper. It resists corrosion in sea water, most organic solutions, non-oxidizing acids, and dilute alkalis. Alloy 3 is not subject to hydrogen embrittlement, and it resists stress corrosion cracking in sulphide and chloride solutions. Alloy 3 is not recommended for use with ammonium hydroxide or strongly oxidizing acids.
Beryllium Copper Alloy Alloy 10 is a high conductivity beryllium copper that has very similar mechanical properties to Alloy 3. However this alloy has an additional alloying element of cobalt rather than nickel giving it a slightly lower thermal conductivity and melting temperature.
Alloy 25 is a high performance copper beryllium alloy used in applications requiring strength, fatigue resistance, nonmagnetic properties, conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Alloy 25 magnetic properties are unaffected by machining and surface abrasion. Alloy 25 provides excellent galling resistance to itself and other alloys at high load conditions. Galling resistance, high hardness and low friction provide wear resistance in bearing and bushing applications under conditions of marginal lubrication. Alloy 25’s corrosion resistance is similar to pure copper. It resists corrosion in sea water, most organic solutions, non-oxidizing acids, and dilute alkalis. Alloy 25 is not subject to hydrogen embrittlement, and it resists stress corrosion cracking in sulphide and chloride solutions.
Alloy 33-35 is a free machining high performance copper beryllium alloy. It is an excellent substitute for Alloy 25 if enhanced machinability is required.
Alloy 165 is a beryllium copper alloy which displays good strength. The material is non-magnetic and non-sparking with good conductivity. The alloy is easily machined with similar characteristics to free cutting copper alloys or stainless steels and weldable using established welding methods. Alloy 165 also offers good strength in cryogenic conditions. The alloy inherently has good wear resistance.

Brass is probably the best known of the “yellow metals” and it is produced in a wide variety of forms with many different characteristics and attributes. It is a basic alloy of copper and zinc and is used in many engineering applications. Typical applications include component and equipment manufacture in a variety of industries. The name brass actually covers a wide range of alloys, but they are fundamentally a combination of copper and zinc, other elements being added to increase the strength, malleability, ductility or resistance to corrosive attack. Many components formerly made of steel have changed to brass, saving costs of machining and plating whilst not compromising on strength. Significant savings in time, machining costs and protective coatings have been made in many applications such as: hydraulic hose couplings, submersible pump components, pneumatic products, automotive components and mining equipment.

Often referred to as a cartridge brass, with high corrosion characteristics and high tensile strength, this free machining brass includes a number of small alloying elements to provide advantageous properties. Weldability is good when soldering or brazing.
Classified predominantly as an alpha brass, CZ108 is a popular material grade, it is a high purity cold forming brass and is used where severe bending properties are required. The material can be machined but only at slow speed with very light feeds. CZ108 offers good corrosion and resistance. The weldability of the alloy is excellent when soldering or brazing and oxyacetylene welding is also good.
CZ112 is used typically in a wide range of marine and subsea applications. 

 This brass alloy offers superior strength and corrosion resistance and offers good property retention at cryogenic temperatures. With excellent hot formability and very good corrosion resistance, the material is used extensively in the marine, oil & gas and petrochemical sector.
CZ114 is specifically developed for applications where higher strength and corrosion resistance is required. Often referred to as a manganese bronze, CZ114 is a non-sparking material and offers good corrosion resistance. It is a high strength alloy with excellent hot forming properties. Weldability is excellent when soldering or brazing.
CZ115 is similar in composition to CZ114 but with restricted aluminium content - this makes the alloy more suitable for high strength brass components to be joined with improved soldering and brazing capabilities. The alloy boasts a good machinability rating. The introduction of greater levels of tin and iron improves the strength and corrosion resistance properties of this alloy considerably. Like CZ114, CZ115 is often referred to as a manganese bronze.
CZ120 is commonly known as an engraving brass, it offers good corrosion resistance with free cutting characteristics. The alloy promotes excellent hot formability with excellent machining qualities.
CZ121 offers the highest possible machinability of any copper alloy. It offers good corrosion resistance and good strength. The alloy promotes excellent hot formability with the highest machinability of any copper alloy.
CZ122 is classed as a stamping brass with excellent hot forming properties and high machinability. It offers a high machinability rating with excellent hot forming properties. The alloy also displays good corrosion resistance.
CZ126 is known as an arsenical brass. The introduction of a small amount of arsenic acts as a very capable corrosion inhibitor making the material suitable for use in most waters. The alloy has very good corrosion resistance offering widespread resistance to may chemicals. The material is easily worked and is also good for soldering and brazing.
CZ130 offers high tensile strength and high corrosion resistance. The alloy has an aesthetically pleasing finish and therefore in many cases no further polishing is required.

Strictly speaking, bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. However, bronze is also used to describe a wider range of copper based alloys. Phosphor bronzes have an addition of phosphor to improve strength and hardness. Superior attributes can often be attained through the addition of other elements to the basic bronze alloy. As well as phosphor, zinc and lead are the most common additions. A leaded bronze will generally have better machining characteristics than an unleaded bronze. It will, however, retain a plasticity that makes it ideal for applications such as the production of bearings. Adding zinc to bronze alloys results in an alloy commonly known as “gunmetal”. It also has good resistance to corrosion and has many applications in the marine industry.

Offering the highest strength of copper based alloys, it is also the most tarnish resistant of all the copper alloys and offers excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of environments particularly in subsea applications. It also has higher strength than standard copper alloys. Aluminium bronze is used in a variety of applications such as underwater fastenings, bearings, bushes, valve spindles, pump shafts, impellers and high duty pumps.
BS1400 AB2 is the most commonly used cast aluminium bronze and is known for its excellent resistance to corrosion, cavitation and erosion in seawater as well as other chloride containing environments due to a tough oxide film. It has high wear and abrasion resistance. The alloy is a non-sparking material with excellent performance in cryogenic service where the mechanical properties are maintained. BS1400 AB2 also offers good strength and toughness with good resistance to shock loading.
BS B23 is used in industries such as oil & gas, petrochemical, marine and aerospace engineering sectors due to its excellent resistance to corrosion and erosion in seawater as well as other chloride containing environments. BS B23 is also known for its high strength and excellent shock and wear resistance whilst being able to retain its properties at cryogenic temperatures.
CA104 is one of the most commonly used aluminium bronzes and is known for its excellent resistance to corrosion and erosion in seawater as well as other chloride containing environments. CA104 is also known for its high strength and excellent shock and wear resistance whilst being able to retain its properties at cryogenic temperatures.
Leaded bronze (also known as leaded tin bronze) is less expensive when compared to other bearings alloys. 
Leaded bronze alloys are well known for their unsurpassed wear performance and can be used against unhardened and not perfectly smooth shafts. The material offers reasonable resistance to brine which means it is suitable for use in pump and valve components. The alloy offers excellent machining properties and is suitable for use in the manufacture of bushes and bearings which are used under medium load as long as suitable lubrication is used. Leaded bronze also benefits from good load carrying capacity and good thermal conductivity. Typical uses are; Non pressure applications, bushes, rail applications bearings and washers.
Phosphor bronze which is often referred to as tin bronze or phosy bronze is an alloy of copper, tin and phosphorous. The alloy offers high corrosion resistance and good wear resistance characteristics and is a versatile material used in numerous application. Phosphor bronze also offers good thermal and electrical conductivity with excellent spring and plating properties. The material is used in a wide range of components such as bearings, springs and bushes, and electrical components and is used in markets such as aerospace, chemical and marine.
PB1 is a continuously cast copper based alloy containing 10-12% tin. This alloy combines high mechanical strength with good ductility, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. It offers a good resistance to shock loading. PB1 can be soldered and brazed and is traditionally used in heavy load applications run at high speeds. Typical applications are bushes, bearings, pump and valve components, flanges and linear bearings.
PB102 is the most common grade of wrought phosphor bronze due to its ability to be used across an extensive range of general purpose applications. PB102 offers superb spring qualities as well as high corrosion resistance that is close to that of aluminium bronzes in a range of atmospheric conditions. It combines good mechanical properties with a fair machinability rating. With low magnetic permeability and high wear resistance, the alloy has very good corrosion resistance. PB102 is an extremely versatile alloy which can be used across a wide range of general engineering applications such as fasteners, springs, pump and valve spindles, flanges, connectors and switches.
PB104 is a high performance wrought phosphor bronze generally used in more demanding applications. Like PB102 it offers superb spring qualities as well as high corrosion resistance that are close to that of aluminium bronzes in a range of atmospheric conditions. It offers excellent wear resistance and very high mechanical properties with good resistance to shock loading. Typical applications include bearing components, pump components, and thrust washers.

Copper alloys are very versatile, by combining copper with other metals the resulting alloys can be made to fit almost any application. Copper has an electrical conductivity that is superior to all metals other than silver and it has a very high thermal conductivity. It is the material of choice for many applications. The softness of ‘commercially pure’ copper makes it difficult to machine however in its more highly alloyed state this is not a problem, but to retain the higher conductivity of copper, the addition of sulphur or tellurium gives a greatly increased cutting ability.

C101 copper is commonly used in a wide variety of engineering applications, with high thermal conductivity, high ductility and material strength C101 is a popular choice for all types of electrical components and conductors. The copper offers good to high corrosion resistance in most environments and is excellent for soldering. Typical components are connectors, busbars and transformers
C103 copper offers the highest electrical conductivity of any commercial pure copper, apart from high conductivity, C103 offers outstanding thermal conductivity and is not susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement when heated in a reduced atmosphere.
C106 is a phosphorus deoxidised non-arsenical copper alloy. This is the preferred grade for non-electrical applications such as for fasteners, general engineering and construction. The metal is easily brazed or welded and has excellent formability. It is a non-magnetic and spark resistant metal, with very good electrical and thermal conductivity. It is not susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Typical components are connectors, busbars and transformers
C109 (CW118C) copper benefits from exceptional machining qualities and excellent electrical & thermal conductivity. C109 is not susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Typical applications are; complex and intricate electrical components, high currency carrying components, clamps, connector pins.
Free Machining Oxygen Free Copper with the highest thermal and electrical conductivity values, oxygen content is restricted to maximise hydrogen embrittlement resistance. Typical applications are; electrical instruments, anodes, semi-conductors and circuit breakers.
Commercially pure coppers are not easy metals to machine due to the materials softness. By introducing other alloying elements such as sulphur, this creates a ‘free machining copper’ with only slightly reduced conductivity. 
C111 retains high levels of electrical and thermal conductivity. It is a cost effective material since it can be machined at very high speeds without excessive tooling wear. Other benefits of the alloy is good weldability and high corrosion resistance.

Copper-nickel alloys (often referred to as cupro-nickels) offer moderate to high strength and excellent resistance to various waters, including seawater and form a protective surface film in such conditions.

Copper Nickel Alloys provide good anti-fouling properties and weldability, possess high strength, low magnetic permeability, imperviousness to hydrogen embrittlement and no loss of impact strength down to minus 196°C.Typical applications are connectors, valve stems, mechanical seals and pump shafts.

DEF STAN 02-779 (NES779) is a cupronickel alloy (copper nickel) which contains 90% copper and 10% nickel, this alloy was formally known as CN102. Corrosion resistance and durability of the alloy is outstanding with excellent resistance from crevice and stress corrosion.
DEF STAN 02-780 (NES780) is a cupronickel alloy (copper nickel) which contains 70% copper and 30% nickel, this alloy was formally known as CN107. DEF STAN 02-780 (NES780) can be used in more demanding applications than DEF STAN 02-779 (NES779) as it has higher strength once annealed. The alloy naturally produces a protective oxide film (or patina) which prevents marine growth in subsea service.
DEF STAN 02-835 (NES835) is an advanced precipitation-hardenable copper nickel. The alloy is an improved version of 90/10 and 70/30 with excellent corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Used specifically in the Oil & Gas, Marine and Naval market.

Nickel Iron alloys are a relatively new group of materials. Each alloy has very specific, often unique, properties and the applications for these alloys are often at the cutting-edge of technology. Strength, corrosion resistance and conductivity are important factors with these alloys but it is their thermal expansion and magnetic permeability characteristics that are often the vital attributes. High-tech industries such as automotive, medical, power generation, aerospace, electronic and petro-chemical have benefited from this range of alloys.

Alloy 200/201 offers exceptional resistance to caustic alkalis and good mechanical properties over a wide temperature range. The alloy is used in such applications as fluorine and sodium hydroxide production as well heat exchangers and pressure vessels. Typical Applications include; food processing, pressure vessels & vessel components and tank heads.
Alloy 276 is a nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy which includes a small amount of tungsten. The material is highly resistant to a wide range of chemicals and gases and is used particularly in oil, gas and chemical production. Alloy 276 has a very low carbon and silicon content. Typical applications are; pressure vessels, pumps and valves and flanges.
Alloy 400 (nickel-copper) is an alloy providing good mechanical strength and toughness over a wide temperature range combined with excellent corrosion resistance. It is more resistant than nickel to corrosion under reducing conditions and more resistant than copper under oxidising conditions. This nickel-copper alloy is therefore in general more resistant to corrosion than either of its two principal constituents. Resistance to stress corrosion cracking in chloride containing media is extremely good. Alloy 400 may readily be fabricated, machined and joined using standard processes.
Alloy 600 is a nickel chromium alloy engineering material for applications where resistance to both heat and corrosion is required. The excellent mechanical properties of the alloy give this material high strength and good workability. Corrosion resistance is good to a wide range of corrosives and it can be used in both cryogenic and elevated temperature service.
Alloy 601 is a nickel chromium alloy used in high temperature applications. It is an excellent high temperature material which includes high chromium content. The alloy has excellent resistance to high temperature oxidation. With good ductility retention after long service exposure, the material also offers good creep and rupture strength.
Alloy 617 is a nickel chromium cobalt molybdenum alloy which combines exceptional high-temperature strength with oxidation resistance. This results in the alloy having excellent resistance to a wide range of wet corrosive environments. Alloy 617 also benefits from ease of fabrication and can be readily welded when using conventional welding techniques. Typical applications are; boiler tubes, gas valve components and petrochemical plants.
A nickel chromium molybdenum alloy that has proved to be a highly prized construction material because of its value in its ability to solve a wide variety of design and application issues. Alloy 625 has outstanding corrosion resistance, even in severe corrosive environments and is used extensively in the oil, gas and petrochemical sector. With excellent weldability and high tensile strength, the material also offers resistance to both sulphide and chlorides stress cracking.
Alloy 718 is a nickel chromium alloy which can be readily fabricated and has outstanding welding characteristics, especially if resistance to post weld cracking is required. The ease in which Alloy 718 can be fabricated offers significant benefits to the customer in terms of economy and performance. The material offers a combination of high tensile, fatigue, rupture and creep strength making it an extremely versatile alloy. Alloy 718 is used in applications ranging from simple fasteners to cryogenic tanks and rocket fuel cylinders. Alloy 718 has versatile resistance to corrosion which is outstanding, even in severe corrosive environments.
Alloy 800 is a nickel chromium iron alloy which is typically used in high temperature service applications where resistance is required from the effects of high temperature corrosion such as oxidation and carburization. Common applications include power generation, heat-treatment furnaces and hydrocarbon processing plants.
Alloy 825 is a nickel alloy which is readily weldable with superb resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. It is therefore an outstanding subsea performing alloy with excellent resistance to reducing and oxidizing acids, and pitting and crevice corrosion.
Alloy K-500 is a precipitation/age hardenable nickel-copper alloy providing high mechanical strength combined with excellent corrosion resistance. Tensile strength is typically twice and yield strength three times that of alloy 400 nickel-copper. The alloy exhibits outstanding properties at sub-zero (including cryogenic) temperatures at which ductility and toughness are virtually unimpaired. It also possesses low permeability and is non-magnetic to temperatures as low as minus 101°C. Alloy K-500 provides excellent resistance to corrosion in seawater, oil & gas environments and a wide variety of industrial media. It is common practice to machine slightly oversize, age-harden, then finish to size. However, age hardened material can be finish machined to close tolerances and fine finishes. The alloy can be joined by industry-standard welding, brazing and soft soldering processes.
A Nickel-Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy which possesses an unusually attractive combination of ultra-high strength, toughness and outstanding corrosion resistance. MP35N alloy offers outstanding resistance to general corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion at all strength levels. The four alloying elements in MP35N being the basis for corrosion resistance in almost every stainless steel, nickel and cobalt based alloy commonly used in industry. MP35N alloy may be TIG welded and in general its weldability is similar to that of Type 304 stainless steel. Joint efficiency is dependent upon the heat treatment / worked condition of the material. The machinability of MP35N is similar to but better than that of Waspaloy, a widely used standard for nickel-cobalt-chromium base alloy machining performance. Typical applications are; high strength marine components, Valve stems and pump shafts in Oil & Gas sector, Fastener system components – pins, tension bolts, shear bolts, engine bolts, tie rods.

Nickel silver alloys (sometimes called German silver) derive their name from their bright silvery appearance though they actually contain no silver at all. They are alloys of copper, nickel and zinc and they find many applications industrial applications, such as component manufacture. They are usually classified by their nickel content with higher nickel contents producing a whiter, silvery colour. Corrosion resistance increases with higher nickel content and the resulting alloys are less vulnerable to stress corrosion than some brass alloys. Strength also increases with nickel content. 
The spring properties of the alloys are good and remain so at elevated temperatures. The electrical conductivity of nickel silver is much less than that for copper. Nickel silver alloys are often used where a combination of good strength and corrosion resistance is required. They also find applications that take advantage of the material’s springing properties such as spring contacts.

NS101 is a nickel silver alloy which is often referred to as 'nickel brass'. The alloy offers good atmospheric corrosion resistance and is one of the most commonly used grades of nickel rod silver. NS101 has good machinability and the surface of the material is tarnish resistant and aesthetically pleasing - with an attractive silvery gold colour. Typical applications are; electronic connectors and switchgear components.

Titanium is a light, strong metal with a natural resistance to marine and chlorine corrosion, it has the highest strength to weight ratio of any metal and even in its unalloyed form it is as strong as some steels but around 45% lighter. Commercially pure (CP) titanium is a term used to describe unalloyed titanium for industrial use. With such a high strength to weight ratio, Titanium has become a highly sort after material and is used in widespread applications. In the motorsport and automotive sector, the advantages of introducing titanium into car and motorcycle designs are obvious with manufacturers looking to make competitive gains whilst maintaining safety. Titanium is also widely used in the aerospace sector in airframe structures and jet engines. Oil, Gas & Petrochemical also make good use of this alloy and also the power generation industry too.

Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5), classed as an alpha-beta alloy, is the most widely used of the high strength titanium alloys. The alloy combines its good mechanical strength with excellent corrosion resistance in many media Typical applications are; offshore oil and gas equipment and auto sport components.
Titanium Grade 9 is sometimes referred to as 'half 6-4'. This alloy of titanium with 3% aluminium and 2.5% vanadium offers 20 to 50% greater mechanical strength than the commercially pure (CP) titanium grades, but is more weldable than Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5). Typical applications are; corrosion resistant pipes and vessels, offshore oil and gas equipment and recreational products - golf clubs shafts, tennis racquets, and bicycle frames.
6-2-4-6 Titanium Alloy (TI-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo), is an alpha-beta titanium alloy offering very high mechanical strength with good retention up to 450°C. The alloy is heat treatable and deep hardenable. The alloy is used in a wide variety of industrial applications including the production of gas turbines and oil & gas production equipment.
CP (Commercially Pure) Grade 1 is unalloyed titanium which is a versatile material used in architectural components, oil & gas, pharmaceutical and marine applications. This material offers high corrosion resistance in oxidising, neutral and mildly reducing media, including chlorides.
CP (Commercially Pure) Grade 2 is the most frequently employed unalloyed titanium grade. It provides moderate strength combined with excellent weldability. CP Grade 2 titanium is used in a wide range of industrial applications from oil & gas and chemical to marine industries. This material offers high corrosion resistance in oxidising, neutral and mildly reducing media, including chlorides.
CP (Commercially Pure) Grade 3 is unalloyed titanium providing higher mechanical strength compared with CP Grades 1 and 2. CP Grade 3 again promotes versatility of use and with higher mechanical strength, is used in industrial applications where improved mechanical properties are required.
CP (Commercially Pure) Grade 4 is unalloyed titanium providing reasonably high mechanical strength combined with good weldability. Compared with CP Grades 2 and 3 the Grade 4 possesses lower toughness despite its higher strength. CP Grade 4 is used in a diverse range of industrial applications. The material offers good weldability.

A refractory metal with a high melting point and a very high density. Tungsten can be used in a pure form but it becomes more useful as an engineering material when alloyed with small quantities of other elements to form a group of products sometimes referred to as Tungsten Heavy Metal Alloys (WHAs). Most of the major applications for tungsten alloys are based on its very high density where it is used to control or distribute weight in some way. Tungsten is up to 65% denser than lead and 130% denser than steel. Radiation shielding is a second common application area.

Since the first man-made plastic in 1856, the proliferation of new plastics with distinct properties has driven the progression of numerous and diverse applications on which the world depends today.The range of materials components are manufactured from includes a host of highly-developed materials such as PTFE, PEEK and Acetyl’s, and with the continual development in the manufacture of plastics, more and more materials are being developed which outperform the more common engineering plastics. Some products manufactured are for electrical insulation, fitted to electrical switchgear equipment, including drive links, housings, arc splitter boxes, coil formers, dropper cards, pads, pins and general bushings.

For cost effectiveness and “whole-of-life” performance, we incorporate the use of high strength and high performance materials and specialist machining. By taking an advisory role in the design stage and recommending both material and appropriate manufacturing processes, we can assist our clients to arrive at innovative, yet cost effective solutions. Our technical knowledge is matched by long-term industry experience and an open minded approach has led to the use of novel manufacturing methods in many of our projects.

Tough, hard and rigid, ABS is easy to machine and can be solvent cemented. Grades can be electroplated. Major engineering use as fittings in waste and ventilation systems.
Acetal sheet and rod are among the stiffest and strongest of all thermoplastics, characterised by excellent fatigue life, good creep resistance, low sensitivity to moisture, good electrical properties and high resistance to chemicals and solvents. Derlin®, a trade name of the DuPont® Company, is a semi-crystalline engineering plastic that is very well suited to CNC machining to close tolerances, and whilst Acetal POM-C and Derlin® POM-H are very similar with many shared characteristics, there are some differences, e.g. Derlin® POM-H has higher mechanical values, better wear resistance and is better for use in friction and wear applications whilst Acetal POM-C has better chemical resistance. Machined Acetal parts include bearings, bushes, rollers pumps and valves.
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is a colourless engineering thermoplastic with excellent mechanical strength, impact resistance, dimensional stability, low friction characteristics and is highly resistant to harsh chemicals. It is widely used in challenging environments such as oil and gas, chemical, nuclear and energy sectors. PEEK has one of the highest possible fire ratings of V-0, passing flame tests beyond most other plastics, retaining its core properties at high temperatures, it is also resistant to hot water, steam and sea water as a result it is used in seals, bearings, rollers, pump and valve components. < /br> The Ketron® PEEK family of materials is based on polyetheretherketone resin. This semi-crystalline advanced material exhibits a unique combination of high mechanical properties, temperature resistance and excellent chemical resistance making it one of the most popular advanced plastics material.
Acrylic is a transparent thermoplastic similar to polycarbonate in that it can be used as an alternative to glass and is one of the most transparent plastics available. It has great surface hardness making it scratch resistant, with an abrasive resistance similar to Aluminium along with good electrical insulating properties and is resistant to UV light and weathering. It is available in sheet or round stock in a variety of colours or clear and is half the weight of glass and will chip rather than shatter if dropped. Acrylic is used in a wide variety of applications ranging from precision engineered components to commercial and domestic products.
Polycarbonates, discovered in 1898, are one of the fastest growing engineering thermoplastics, they are strong, stiff, hard, tough, with high dimensional stability and they are thermally resistant as well as a natural UV filter. Although they are commercially available in a variety of colours the raw material is transparent and polycarbonates are available in cylinder, rod and sheet format, in various grades, dependant on the application and processing method. Where impact resistance, flame retardancy, dielectric properties and optical clarity are priorities, polycarbonate is the ideal material. It is easy to paint and it bonds well using solvents and adhesives, it also has a high impact strength over a vast temperature range.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) has a high mechanical and tensile strength and an exceptional corrosion resistance, but only at temperatures -20c to + 65c. PVC is used throughout the world as its strength, transparency, colour and rigidity lends itself to many applications, it is the 3rd most widely produced plastic polymer in the world. It has extensive European food contact and medical approvals along with a relatively small carbon footprint. It is a material that requires little maintenance and is fully recyclable.
Polyethylene is resistant to oils, greases and chemicals, it absorbs very little water and is a dimensionally stable plastic. it is available in white, black or natural. HDPE- high density polyethylene is the workhorse of all polyethylene's as it has excellent temperature and chemical resistance as well as high tensile strength. It is non-toxic and is ideal for parts such as wear strips in the food processing industry. LDPE-low density polyethylene that is used where corrosion and erosion resistance are required, often used for guide rails, impact plates and washers and gaskets. HMWPE - this is used extensively for wear or abrasion resistant components on conveyors, tension bars and liners. UHMWPE- the toughest of all the polyolefins, with excellent abrasion and wear properties, along with low temperature impact and tensile strength. Applications include liners, wear strips and conveyor belts.
This is a rigid, light-weight and tough plastic which can withstand high impact and is chemically resistant as well as fire retardant. Various grades are available, including anti-static varieties. Within engineering it is mainly used for pumps, valves and actuators for fluid handling and chemical containment. It is also used for lining tanks and pickling baths. On the downside it has high creep and little resistance to UV light.
PTFE is tough, has moderate tensile strength and has great stability over a large temperature range making it an ideal material for sealing at extremes of temperature. It has high electrical resistance and is chemically inert, offering a low flammability and a non-stick, low friction efficiency. It is resistant to weathering and aging and is food compliant, it does not make good bearings as its ability to bear load is limited. It is available in plain or "filled" grades such as Glass fibre, Graphite, Mica, Bronze and Carbon, the fillers increase the wear and compression properties. Fluorinoid® FL 161 is a bronze and graphite filled PTFE used in dynamic sealing and bearing applications where the bronze filler gives improved wear resistance and compressive strength and the graphite improved frictional properties. The electrical properties and chemical resistance are reduced.
Nylon, due to its excellent CNC machining properties, is one of the most well known engineering plastics, available in sheet, rod, tube and plate format and components can be produced to high tolerances because of its low coefficient of friction. Nylon is regularly used to replace metal bearings, bushings, rollers and wheels and can dispense with the need for external lubrication, other advantages include reduction in wear on opposite parts, noise and weight reduction. Nylon is available in various types including Extruded and Cast, Nylon 6 (Ertalon®), 66 (Nylatron®), 11, 12 and Molybdenum Disulphide filled. Additives to nylon such as glass and carbon fibre are primarily to increase strength and rigidity, especially at high temperatures, and improved dimensional stability and tighter tolerances can be achieved. Oil Filled Nylon: Ertalon® LFX®, this internally lubricated cast oil filled nylon 6 is self lubricating, has improved wear resistance and was especially developed for slow moving, high load un-lubricated parts.
PAI stands for Polyamide-Imide, a polymer that gives the highest strength and stiffness of any commercial thermoplastic at extremely high temperatures and stresses. It is often used for critical mechanical and structural components where mechanical performance and dimensional stability are essential. As it has outstanding resistance to wear, creep and chemicals, it ideally suited to severe environments, such as cryogenic temperatures, however it has a relatively high moisture absorption rate so parts produced to high tolerances should be kept dry prior to installation. It is available in various grades and can have other compounds added such as glass fibre or graphite to enhance its properties.
Fluorosint is chemically linked to PTFE but contains unique properties as a result of synthetically manufactured mica being added. This bonding results in a load carrying capability and thermal expansion rate not normally found in reinforced PTFE.

Fluorosint 207 has numerous application possibilities in food, pharmaceutical and medical industries due to the composition of the raw materialist contains. It meets the requirements of the directives of the European Union and the American FDA regulations concerning plastic materials coming into contact with foodstuffs.

Fluorosint 500 is non-abrasive to most mating materials and has greater resistance to deformation under load than unfilled PTFE. It is ideal for manufacturing seats and seals. It has a very high max. allowable service temperature in air (250 C continuously), excellent chemical and hydrolysis resistance, good wear resistance due to low coefficient of friction, very good dimensional stability, good electrical insulating properties, outstanding UV and weather resistance and low flammability.
Techtron PPS is an internally lubricated polyphenylene sulphide grade which demonstrates an excellent combination of properties, making it ideal for applications where PA, POM, PET, PEI and PSU fall short, or where PBI, PI, PEEK and PAI are over-engineered and a more economical solution is required.

Techtron HPV PPS offers a valuable combination of properties including wear resistance, load-bearing capabilities and dimensional stability, when exposed to chemicals and high temperature environments.
  • Characteristics
  • Applications
  • Availability
  • Downloads

Techtron Characteristics
  • Very high maximum allowable service temperature in air (220°C continuously, going up to 260°C for short periods of time).
  • High mechanical strength, stiffness and creep resistance, also at elevated temperatures
  • Excellent wear and frictional behaviour
  • Excellent chemical and hydrolysis resistance
  • Very good dimensional stability
  • Good electrical insulating and dielectric properties
  • Inherent low flammability
  • Excellent resistance against high energy radiation (gamma and X-rays)
  • Physiologically inert (suitable for food contact)
Techtron PPS Technical Notes

All PPS products offer dimensional stability and strength at moderate temperatures. They are rated for continuous service to 220°C (425°F), but strength and stiffness vary based on temperature and grade. Unreinforced Techtron PPS is generally not recommended for wear applications. Products like Duratron PAI or Ketron PEEK are better selections for high temperature wear applications. When designing with compression molded grades, it is important to note its relatively low elongation and impact strength.

Industrial laminates and composites have many advantages compared with traditional materials, such as improved machine-ability, increased performances, lower weight and a finer finish. The engineering applications are almost limitless, with components such as bearings, supports and wear pads being stronger, more effective and longer lasting. We supply local and multinational organisations in the rail, defence and chemical sectors with industrial laminate and composite components manufactured from brands such as Tufnol and Railko.

Industrial laminate is made by applying heat and pressure to layers of fabric, canvas, linen or glass cloth, impregnated with synthetic thermosetting resins. These materials are called “Thermosets.” A variety of resin types and cloth materials can be used to manufacture thermoset laminates with a range of mechanical, thermal and electrical properties.

P1, P2 and P3 (Kite Brand) are versatile electrical high voltage insulation materials, also known by the brand name Tufnol, they are manufactured using fine layers of phenolic paper and exhibit high strength and excellent electrical insulation properties along with low moisture absorption. There is a choice of grades dependant upon voltage or other insulation or water absorption criteria. P grades are used in low temperature and electrical applications where rigid non-metallic insulation is required. Typical components manufactured from P grade are sleeves, bushes, busbar supports, mounting and terminal plates. F1, F2 and F3 are multi-purpose insulation materials manufactured using fine, medium and course weave phenolic cottons. They have excellent wear resistance, and very good strength characteristics. The fine weave is used when a higher definition machined finish is required whilst the course and medium grades are used for larger components. The fine weave offers higher strength in lower thickness as well as good dimensional stability. Typical components manufactured from F grade are Cams, Wear Plates, Gears and Actuating Arms.
F1, (Carp Brand) F2 (Whale Brand) and F3, also known by the brand name Tufnol are multi-purpose insulation materials manufactured using fine, medium and course weave phenolic cottons. They have excellent wear resistance, and very good strength characteristics. The fine weave is used when a higher definition machined finish is required, with F6 achieving high tolerances when machined, whilst the course and medium grades are used for larger components. The fine weave offers higher strength in lower thickness as well as good dimensional stability. Typical components manufactured from F grade are Cams, Wear Plates, Gears and Actuating Arms.
The SRBGF group of laminates has wide ranging properties, mostly based on the type of resin used to bond the laminations, which can be epoxy, phenolic, silicone or polyimide resins. These SRBGF materials are generally characterised by good temperature resistance, strong dimensional stability and high strength properties, and they are often used in technically demanding applications, or for more specialised purposes such as where higher temperature capabilities are required. Epoxy Grades-The mechanical and electrical properties are mainly similar at normal temperature. Grade B38 is flame retardant, G10 has high mechanical properties at temperatures up to 130c. Phenolic Glass-such as grade B30 is highly flame retardant and its low smoke, low toxic emissions make it ideal for closed situations such as aircraft or underground. Glass reinforced laminate material is suitable for electro-mechanical components, washers, gaskets, bearings, bushes and pulleys as well as a vast array of precision machined parts. Silicone Glass-have low dielectric loss and are suitable for applications microwaves as well as harsh environments like furnaces. Polyimide-resins show great mechanical strength and good temperature resistance.
GP03 is a "Class F" laminate material manufactured from alkali-free E-glass mat and polyester resin, available in red, grey and white colours, the sheets are formed under extremely high pressure. GP03 is fire retardant, has good electrical insulation, high temperature insulation, low moisture absorption, and good flexural strength and therefore it is ideal for use in most electrical applications. Delmat Epoxy 68660 is a high performance laminate for electrical and mechanical "Class H" applications. It has excellent thermal resistance, good resilience to solvents, oils, chloric and dielectric liquids as well as low water absorption, good dimensional stability and it is easy to machine.
Sindanyo® H91 and L21 are Portland cement based insulation materials that have been created to provide long-lasting components in demanding electrical and thermal applications, where high strength in machined components is required. Both products are non-combustible, have good insulation properties, a low thermal conductivity and are asbestos free. Components have good compressive and mechanical strength and they are dimensionally stable when operating at their top service temperatures. The material can be easily machined, threaded or tapped to make intricate parts with good impact resistance and toughness.
EM42 is a filled epoxide resin composite with woven and non-woven glass reinforcement, with excellent machining characteristics. It is highly flame retardant, halogen free, low smoke and low toxicity and as a result is approved by London Underground for use with all rolling stock as it meets UL94V0 fire rating. It exhibits both excellent reaction to fire and fire resistance, it will act as a barrier to the passage of fire, and is suitable for electrical/mechanical applications, specifically where there is a need for fire or arc performance.
Feroform F21 is a composite material made from woven fibre bonded with resin with a friction modifier. it has strength, durability, dimensional stability, low friction, and excellent wear properties. It is particularly useful in the dirty and dusty railway environment, where Side Bearer Liners, Vestibule Buffers and Tread Plates are manufactured from Feroform F21. It is available for machining from sheet, tube and rod.
Traffolyte is made from 3 to 5 layers of permanently bonded different coloured opaque laminate sheets. The perfect material for producing signs, labels and ID tags as it is available with a high gloss or matt surface, it is robust, easy to maintain, as well as being resistant to chemicals and solvents. It gives a professional high quality durable finish, along with being fire resistant, naturally hardwearing and resistant to both oxidisation and water, so no further surface protection is required. It is available in a range of colours for example yellow, black, yellow commonly used for Caution signs.
Mica comes in two basic forms, Phlogopite grades which operate up to 700c and Muscovite grades operating at a maximum temperature of 500c. Mica based material components demonstrate excellent thermal insulation properties, low moisture absorption, high strength and good electrical insulation properties. Typically used in Thermal barriers, coil insulation and isolators.

In 1957 Railko began producing self-lubricating components made from advanced engineering composite materials of high quality, the marine and rail industries were prime users of these bearings and wear parts.

NF21 and NF22 grades have a resin bonded composite structure with added friction modifers to give a controlled friction. They have the same formula with NF21 being for flat components and NF22 is for cylindrical components. It has been developed as a high performing wearing and bearing material for many industrial applications and provides low friction and wear rates. NF21 and NF22 is widely used for railway and pump marine components.
Railko PV80 has been around since 1974, it is an oil-impregnated material with an acetal polymer base and in many instances can ensure lubrication for the life of the component. As it is self-lubricating it resolves issues of noise, friction and maintenance that occur with traditional materials. Bearings made from PV80 can cope with high degrees of shock, heavy loading and misalignment as a result it is widely used in the rail and automotive industries for bushes and gear shifts. Other items engineered from PV80 include wear and tread plates and suspension and linkage bushes.